The entire plain of Aipos and the forest to the west of the village have hundreds of scattered agrarian installations with elements dating back to Byzantine, Roman, Hellenistic, Ancient, or even pre-Hellenic period.

The name Pityos itself derives from the ancient Ionian word “Pitys,” meaning pine tree. With the name Pitys, it is recorded in the biography of Homer by Pseudo-Herodotus, the passage of the great ancient poet through the village. It is characteristic that during the time of Ancient Greek colonisation in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea, two other locations would be named in the same way. One is the well-known present-day islands of Ibiza and Formentera, the Ancient “Pityouses Islands,” in the Balearics of Spain. The other is the less-known coastal town called Pitsunda, in the Tauric Colchis, in Abkhazia, Georgia, the ancient “Pityos” of the Black Sea. Both Ionian and Milesian colonies respectively seem to have been founded around the 5th century BCE and bear the same name, Pityos.

Historian Zolotas attributes to the broader area of Pityos in Chios a series of sites with intense archaeological interest. Even to this day, over a century after Zolotas recorded them, most of these areas have not been explored, except for a few exceptions. According to Volume A of his Topography, carved stone wells have been found in the area of “Aria”, dating back to the first inhabitants of Chios, the Pelasgians, around 2000 BCE, and certainly before the Ionian colonisation of Chios in the 11th century BCE. Similarly, the same applies to Remokastro (or Limokastro, or Ellinokastro) next to the ancient agrarian settlement of Spartina. Remokastro and Spartina, in fact, are the only sites that, in the early 1980s, drew the attention of the German Archaeological Service, which, together with the Greek Archaeological Service, conducted the only non-surface excavations in Aipos, confirming the long history of the area, even before classical antiquity.

The invasion of the forces of the tyrant of Miletos, Histiaeus, and the siege of Chios in 494 BCE place areas between Delphini and today’s Pityos, in the positions of Koila and Paleopyrgos Skafis, on the map of ancient history with large and significant fortification works. These, as a recent study by Archaeologist Despina Tsardaka showed, were almost certainly used later during the Peloponnesian War, the Chian resistance to the Athenian Alliance, and the unsuccessful invasion of the Athenians on the island from Delphini. It is very likely that these events also gave rise to the uprisings of the slaves.

Zolotas writes, “In Pityos, we have ancient remains in the positions of Fardy Pigadin, Damalon, Aiyannika, where the so-called Hellenotoichos (Hellenic Wall), a long wall from Kameni Fritza to Ampelovouno, is mentioned… In Antykan (Entykan) and Chalikouryan, there are remains of a building made of large square stones, many of which were transferred for the construction of the village church. In Mytakan, a location towards Koila, large stones of an olive press and other ruins were found, from which the Pyrgoi, once standing there, were mostly built. In Bampakies (towards the border with the pasture of Anavatos), many levelled fields and old wells are visible. Ruins of buildings indicate the existence of an ancient settlement, supported by various old spores. Worth noting there is the smooth field called Bampakies. In Perdikovouno, the position of Kritikou, there are ruins of old buildings where once was found the marble head of a woman, shattered by the shepherd who discovered it.

Zolotas also notes the discovery of ancient wine presses at the location, giving the name “Lenoi,” while also noting the discovery of a significant quantity of coins, 50 silver and 175 bronze, and artefacts in tombs found in Machairopetra of Oros, above today’s Pityos. This discovery probably occurred in the last years of the Ottoman Empire, without any historical or archival record, as some of these artefacts are displayed in the numismatic collection of the Museum of Berlin, as noted by the museum’s Numismatic Journal in INDEX No 1117, stating that they were found in 1885 and date back to 334-332 BCE! (See the newspaper “Chian People” 16/5/1984 and Heilas, pp. 23-25).

The myths of Homer and Drimakos from the 8th and 4th centuries BC, respectively, are not without reason, as they testify to the many scattered place names. Additionally, we know that during the 6th and 5th centuries BC, the bards of Chios, known as the Homerides, were active in the broader area of Northern Chios, serving as continuators and preservers of the Homeric Epics.

Crucial for documenting the ancient history of the village is the existence of the Hellenostrata, an ancient path that begins from the hights above Myrsinidi in Vrontados, branches in Aipos in the area of Fountana, with one branch going north to the villages of Sykiada, Lagkada, and from there to Kydianta and Koila up to Pityos. Another branch comes from Aipos to Flori and from there bifurcates. The southern road leads to Anavatos and central Chios. The western one through the forest leads to Katavasi and Volissos. Locals call it “the path of Homer,” and until the mid-19th century, it was the only communication route, making the area of Pityos a communication hub in Northern Chios. The term “Hellenostrata” (as well as “Hellenotichos”) is likely of Byzantine origin. With the prefix “Helleno-,” Byzantine Christians referred to works or structures of ancient Greek origin. The concept of “Hellenes” was synonymous with “National” and identified the ancient Greeks as pagans.

As for late antiquity, Hellenistic times, Roman, and the early Byzantine years, we do not yet have findings, as comprehensive archaeological research has not been conducted, except for the fact that many of the dry-stone constructions in Aipos seem to date back to those years. Moreover, Remokastro is mentioned to have functioned as a permanent fortification until the early Byzantine centuries.